Anarchist historian Philip Ruff was born in Birmingham in 1952. During the 1970s and 80s Philip was an active proponent of revolutionary anarchism as a member of the Anarchist Black Cross, bringing him into contact with  anarchists such as Albert Meltzer  and Stuart Christie; as well as being a prolific contributor to a wide range of anarchist publications (including Black Flag, the Cienfuegos Press Anarchist Review and Anarchy magazine) as author, editor, cartoonist and publisher. Describing himself today as a “retired anarchist”, Philip has since 1986 specialised in researching into Latvian social history, with a special emphasis on the 1905 revolution and Latvian anarchism. He first visited Latvia in 1988 and lives in London.

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